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Penmaen Dewi



Historic Background
A small area of modern Pembrokeshire, on the very northern edge of Mynydd Preseli, within the medieval Cantref Cemaes. Cemaes was brought under Anglo-Norman control in c.1100 by the Fitzmartins who retained it, as the Barony of Cemaes, until 1326, when they were succeeded by the Audleys. The Barony was conterminous with the later Hundred of Cemais, which was created in 1536, but many feudal rights and obligations persisted, some until as late as 1922. This character area lies within Nevern parish, which was a borough of the barony during the medieval period. Its lies on the northern edge of the great common of Mynydd Preseli, on which the freeholders of Cemaes had been granted rights of pasture and turbary by a charter of Nicholas Fitzmartin in the late 13th-century. Trehaidd was in fact named as one of the boundaries of the common in the charter, when it appears to have been an important landholding. Although Clyn-yr-wyn was mentioned independently in a document of 1343, none of the other holdings in this character area were listed in the Extent of Cemaes of 1577 which suggests that the Trehaidd holding consisted of the entire area. Some of the long, narrow fields within this area, which appear in form to be of post-medieval enclosure type- the area is after all marked as 'Forest' on Rees' map - may in fact be derived from enclosure of former field strips. The establishment of the farmsteads of Trebwlch, first mentioned in 1671, and Pen-y-lan fach, mentioned in 1715, may a result of later subdivision of the larger holding of Trehaidd. The area has been crossed by the main Haverfordwest-Cardigan route since the medieval period, and on its boundary with the common lies Tafarn-y-bwlch, which must have already been an inn in 1729 when it was marked, and labelled, on Emanuel Bowen's map. The road was later turnpiked and is now the B4329. The remainder of the farms were established in the 18th- and early 19th-century, and by the time of the tithe survey of 1843 the area had taken on its present form.

Base map reproduced from the OS map with the permission of Ordnance Survey on behalf of The Controller of Her Majesty's Stationery Office, Crown Copyright 2001.
All rights reserved. Unauthorised reproduction infringes Crown Copyright and may lead to prosecution or civil proceedings. Licence Number: GD272221

Description and essential historic landscape components
Trehaidd historic landscape character area lies on fairly gentle east-facing slopes between 160m and 280m on the northern side of Mynydd Preseli. It is characterised by dispersed settlements and by fields with a distinct east-west trend. These fields are small- to medium-sized and generally approximate to a rectangular shape. Field boundaries comprise earth banks with a few earth and stone banks. Banks are topped with hedges, but except for alongside roads and tracks and at a few locations at lower levels these hedges are not well maintained and are either derelict or reduced to straggling lines of bushes and small trees. These trees together with little a scrubby woodland, particularly at lower levels, lend a wooded aspect to parts of the landscape. Woodland is not, however a defining characteristic. Wire fences provide the main stock-proof boundaries. Land-use is almost entirely pasture with a little arable. Pasture is a mixture of improved grazing, unimproved grazing and rougher, rushy land. The dispersed settlements comprise farms and cottages. Dwellings are generally of 19th century date in the vernacular style. One, one-and-a-half and two storey buildings are present. They are stone-built (cement rendered and bare stone), slate roofed and of three bays. 20th century dispersed housing in a variety of styles and materials, from both early and later in the century, is a feature of the buildings of this area. Farm outbuildings where present are also quite small. Usually a single 19th century stone-built range is present, sometimes in combination with a mid 20th-century corrugated-iron structure and/or small late 20th-century steel, asbestos and concrete buildings. Some of the larger farms have a collection of larger 20th century agricultural buildings. There are no listed buildings within the character area. Transport elements are confined to the B4239 and local-use lanes and tracks. All are narrow and winding and bounded by hedge-banks.

Recorded archaeology comprises neolithic or bronze age finds, a scheduled bronze age stone pair, and a scheduled standing stone. There is also a scheduled Early Christian inscribed stone, and a holy well site.

Trehaidd is a distinctive and well defined historic landscape character area. It is bounded to the west, south and east by the open moorland of Mynydd Preseli. To the northwest and northeast lie the distinctive character areas of Cilgwyn and Brynberian-Miraniog, and to the north the open land of Carnedd Meibion Owen.

Sources: Bowen 1729; Charles 1992; Dyfed Archaeological Trust 1997; Howells 1977; Nevern tithe map and apportionment, 1843; Rees 1932